High Energy Horse FeedHigh-energy horse feed
Irrespective of the competitive standard, the importance of diet for optimum sporting achievement cannot be overemphasised. Occasionally we should brush up our grasp of some fundamental approaches and look for ways to cover the dietary needs of the sporting horse. That old saying "You are what you eat" sounds right when we think about diet.
A second important point is that energy is by far the most important factor in shaping a nutrition for a competitive horse. However, it is the number of intakes that has the greatest impact on a horse that is able to do its best. When the energy in a horse's nutrition during exercise is insufficient, it decreases and its power is below average.
More than twice as much energy is required per diem for the high-performance horse (e.g. a race horse, a three-day show horse or an athletic stamina test) as for the medium "Couch Potato" horse. Your horse must be provided with sufficient "food" so that it can keep fit during the hard conditions of exercise and competitions.
On the other hand, the high-performance horse cannot take in enough fodder (pasture or hay) to cover its everyday energy needs. Therefore, we are striving for more energy-intensive feed such as cereals and fat to address the energy gap. However, all too often there is a propensity to overeat cereals and feed, which ultimately leads to an increase in the risks of indigestion and, in some cases, to recurring muscular disease (exertive rhabdomyolysis) disorders.
What energy? Energetic is not a nutrition. Nutritional scientists relate to food energy in the form of either a kilocalorie (kcal, equivalent to 1,000 calories) or a megacalorie (Mcal, where 1 Mcal=1,000 kcal) of energy for digestion. Nutritional energy resources include starches, fats, proteins and fibre. While all these resources should be used in the nutrition of sport horse, they should be mixed in certain proportions for optimum performances - more on this later.
How much energy does the horse need? National Research Council of 1989 recommends that the energy supply should be raised by 25%, 50% and 100% above the need for maintaining easy, moderate and intensive movement horse numbers (see "Energy needs for workhorses" on page 98).
Easy work can involve horse back rides and other recreational horse back rides, while intensive activity includes horse back rides, hunts, three-day shows and stamina work. Conversely, the same horse in competition would need 32-33 Mcal of DE per diem. Horse races have shown that DE recordings of 28 to 32 Mcal/day are required for Standardbreds and 31 to 36 Mcal/day for thoroughbreds (see Gallagher et al. 1992; Southwood et al. 1993).
In order to better comprehend why the competitive horse cannot flourish on fodder (pasture or hay) alone, let us apply a basic archithmetic. High feed intake also leads to the formation of a "hay belly", which is an unwanted feature of a high horse. Finally, the energy obtained from the food must be transformed into mechanic energy in the muscles.
There are two main energy resources during training - sugar and fat acid. Fat is retained in fat tissues as well as in and around muscular fibres, while glycose is retained as glucogen in muscles and livers. The most important propellant for muscular contractions is by far muscular glycogen. for cantering.
On the other hand, minimum energy is supplied by fats during unrestricted running gallops. You will also recognize that a horse's system cannot produce glucogen from fats - it needs cereal or fibre based glucides to restore glucogen storage in the muscles and hepat. Irrespective of the training disciplines, muscular Glycogen is an important energy resource. Horse will consume a considerable amount of fats in stamina sports where trot and canter are the main activities.
Nevertheless, the importance of glucogen remains crucial, as the exhaustion of the muscle's glucogen storage leads to early tiredness. There is also indication that low levels of muscular glycogen may affect high-intensity training achievement (see Lacombe et al. 1999). Although there are some true advantages to add fats to a high-performance horse's nutrition, there must be a sufficient carbohydrate intake to restore glucogen uptake.
The energy in the nutrition is provided by the four main ingredients strength, fats, fiber fibers and protein: Strength, a coal hydrate, is the main constituent of grain kernels (oats, Mais and barley). Strength is the preferred food energy resource for Glycogenynthesis. In the digestive process, the starches are decomposed into sugar, which is then taken up into the blood stream and made available for glucogenesis in muscles and livers.
Oils such as maize germ seed oils, soya bean oils or the oils found in stabilised ricegrass are the most frequent fatty acids in the horse's diets. Based on body mass, the energy content of fatty acids is about 2.25 x that of maize, oat and barley. 2.25 x that of energy. Dietary fibre found in grass or grass is an energy resource that is often ignored in horse-feeding.
These VFA can be used directly in the liver for energy production or transformed into fats or sugar. Sufficient fibre is also vital to maintain intestinal healthy bowel, and for stamina ponies, the large reserves of moisture and electrolytes provided by a high fibre nutrition (which absorbs plenty of moisture that can be used later) can be used to prevent dehydration as well as electrode imbalance during workouts.
Proteins are not a prime energy resource and, unlike fats and sugars, are not retained in the human organism. However, for several different reason a very high-proptein diet for equine people is not advisable. Firstly, the need for drinking tap water increases with increasing amounts of proteins. Secondly, the excessive production of proteins leads to an accumulation of final nitric acid metabolites (ammonia and urea), which can cause serious illnesses.
That' s enough theories - how do you reliably cover the energy requirements of the horse? A first consideration is how much food we want from a competitive horse that eats it every single passing day. What is the best food for your horse? National Research Council's 1989 text on the nutritional needs of equidae (online at www. p. f. edu/books/0309039894/html) contains guidance on both the overall amount of feed (hay and grain) that should be eaten by workhorses and the relationship between feed and cereals in the food (see "Energy requirements for workhorses" on page 98).
A workhorse of the intensive class (the high-level performer), for example, is supposed to use between 2% and 3% of its daily food as food (22 to 33 lbs. for a 1,100 lb. horse or 9th grade). from 9 to 14. 9 kg for a 500 kg horse). Ideally, however, the feed -to-concentrate proportion varies according to the feed's energy levels and feedability.
The majority of commercial cereal concentrate contains all important energy resources - starches, fats, fibres and proteins. Like I said before, don't consider proteins as a prime energy resource. Proteins are required for about 10% of the overall nutrition, although in most cases the amount of proteins will be higher at 11 years due to the proteins content of the usual feed components oat.
In most cases a 10-12% proteinaceous concentrated solution is okay. Use as much as possible grease and one of the "superfibers" to increase the energy level of the food. Yes, some strength is needed to supply glycose for the production of glucogen in the muscles and livers. A way to decrease excess starches in the diets is to feed turnip schnitzel or soya husks that contain little starches.
Soya husks are used in pelletized feed, while turnip chips are often built into "sweet feed" mixtures. Cereal concentrates with added fats also help to lower the strength level of the food - those with a fats level between 7-10% are optimal for most competitive horse. Currently, this kind of feed is the best way to meet the high energy needs of the competitive horse.
A more drastic reduction in the amount of dietetic strength is required when the horse is a horse with recurring binding difficulties, especially whole blood with recurring excertional RhB. The high strength diet of these animals seems to help with the binding issues. The diet of these stallions should emphasise the use of high-quality hey, fibres that are easily fermented (beet chips or soya husks) and fats with lower levels of starches (no more than five lbs of cereals per day).
Another important nutritional aspect for the competitive horse is the use of potable and electrolyte waters. A non-working horse needs about 20-30 litres of drinking soda per second. Everyday training can significantly raise the need for drinking fluids, as perspiration and subsequent evaporation are the most important means by which a horse can free itself of overheating.
Consequently, the average day demand for drinking oil of a high performing horse can be 50-60 litres or more. Keeping your horse's nutrition within these limits and the nutrients he needs to do what you expect him to do are essential. Feed the high-octane horse. Gallagher, K.; Leech, J.; Stowe, H. Protein, energy and solids usage in thoroughbred racing:
Lacombe, V.; Kinchcliff, K.W.; Geor, R.J.; Lauderdale, M.A. exercise, which induce significant exhaustion of muscular glycogen, affects following aerobic capacitance. Hodgson, D.; Bryden, W.; Rose, R. Nutrient absorption of horse in whole blood and standard breeding sheds.