Horse Harness HamesHarness Hames
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Collars, Hames and Harness Fitting
Except for this typeface, we print the whole originals, untrimmed - uneditated, contents of the 1944 folder (No. 276) as manufactured by the Horse and Mule Association of America. When I collected this kind of equipment for 20 years, I thought I had come across all the pamphlets of the Horse and Mule Association that have been released I was very shocked when I visited Schrick's Iowa Ranch (see the articles in this issue) and found that there was still a great deal of equipment to discover.
Perhaps you remember in earlier editions of the SFJ a man called Wayne Dinsmore, who was the most energetic and singing assistant to the Horse and Mule Assoc. in the troubled 1930s and 1940s. The Dinsmore was an enthusiastic and tenacious supporter of real horse power at a times when an immense amount of publicity funds was nourishing the headfirst, mad run on the horse.
I would have loved the revival of the driving force in the 1970s, but I wonder what he would think about how we do doing a deal now that the price is low. Support and training are of crucial importance for the stabilisation of the draught horse sector. Emphasis on the lack of leathers and the abundance of cloth collar was due to the effects of the conflict on the supply.
It would be difficult for most of us to find a crockery store where we could clean and lubricate ourselves. Many of the hints in this text assume that the readers will be a grower with comprehensive horse riding experiences. It will certainly be controversial to say that the collars in Dixie will be smaller than in the northern part.
Good riders know everything that is presented here: but they will also welcome this pamphlet, because it will freshen their memory and make their work much simpler if they have to show rented men or youngsters how to set up their gear correctly. From many years of practice, good riders know that sores on the neck or shoulder at the workplace are due to lack of knowledge or inattentiveness on the part of those responsible and are unforgivable.
Whilst it is possible to treat pets with wounded neck or shoulder, it is not human and the vast majority affected pets will be left to temporary shelter. Ill. 6 - Ulcer scar. It is therefore an important economical issue to keep the neck and shoulder of stocks in good shape, as there are between 11 and 12 million birds that will be working in the harness in 1944.
Knowing the causes of neck and shoulder complaints and avoiding such causes keeps the worklist free of such problems. These three images are shown here because they show an outstanding collar, ham and harness fitting under maximal load. Note that although the horse makes its best effort, the throat of the collar touches almost, but not quite, the throat of the horse, so there is no suffocation.
The hames fits over the whole length into the collar stitches. Stomach straps are sturdy and so long that the tractors are pulled at right angle to the shoulder, from the collar to the stomach strap. If the stomach straps were not properly adjusted, the tugboats, which slightly climb from stomach strap to singles tree when the horse is pulled, would raise their collar against the neck and suffocate the horse.
Each of the three couples have separate ham belts that hold the hams together over the top. Covers are tightly attached to the sides of the neckline by means of shoulder padding, which also distributes the weight over a wider contact area on the shoulder. In order to prevent throat pain, each workhorse should have an individually designed necklace that is kept solely for that workhorse.
Adjusting a necklace to a new workhorse, whether bought or reared, should be done with different sized necklaces until one that matches is found. When it is not practicable to bring the pet into the harness store, an estimated provisional shape can be achieved by checking with necklaces belonging to other pets until one that appears approximately correct is found and then measures the length as shown in Fig. 4.
Ill. 4 - Collared pieces: How to take measurements. First one is suitable for long, slim, thin, flat throats, second one for the slightly thicker and slightly thicker throat, the third one is for a rivet-like throat that is very thick near the top. In other words, a 18 inch flange is only 18 inch from top to bottom within the edge when the flange is bent - 21 inch would be 21 inch - see Figure 4 for the measurement technique.
Little pets take 16 or smaller, very large draught ponies, 24 or bigger. a) Of leathers; b) Except for leathers. These often have a face ticked (a piece of woven cotton) and a ripped hide back and edges. Considering the current great lack of leathers, many necklaces will have a back canard and a rimlace.
Necklaces other than all leathers are usable, last 3 or 4 years and are sold at such low cost that their use is justified if not all of them are available. When assembling a flange, it should be fastened and strapped so that the sides of the flange are so close to the neckline that it is possible to guide only the finger between the edge of the flange and the sides of the neckline when the flange is strongly pushed or pulled back against the shoulder.
Behold picture 9, which shows a too broad neck; the whole palm goes in, not only the finger, but the whole one. Whilst the neck is pushed back, the length should be selected so that the palm can be turned upwards as shown in Fig. 10. In the case of measurements, a straightedge shows about 2 inch clear between the horse's throat and collar when neck is pulled back hard against one' collars by pulling on tractors - all a man can draw - or by getting the horse to push forward against a weight until neck is pushed tightly against the other.
Pic7 - Collars too small and too small. The correct length of the collars is very important. A too tight collars pushes on the nape and upwards against the nape, which leads to a wounded neckr. Suffocates a horse by pressing against the trachea during strong traction.
It causes a horse to drop, suffocate, and discourages the horse from further maximal effort. Also, a too tight neck will raise the draw point too high, and wounds may occur high up on the shoulders. Too long a neck will bring the pull point too low and too close to the shoulders.
As a result, the wound heals very quickly as it causes consistent rubbing when the point on the shoulders is moving forward and backward. A too broad collars, even if the length is correct, leads to a force too far from the throat, i.e. near the shoulders and causes a wound there. Ill. 8 - Too long flange; ham matches the flange.
Once a necklace of the right form and length has been found, it must be adjusted, regardless of whether it is a new or an old necklace to be used on another horse. A good option is to impregnate the face of only the skin necklace for an entire lesson in a few centimetres of lukewarm running hot bath fluid (where a sufficiently large bath is not available, lukewarm moist towels can be placed over the face to make it softer).
The horse should then be placed on the horse and the team star should set the hams and harness with care and work the horse well. Moist necklace adapts to the horse's precise nape and shoulder form. Necklaces other than nappa skin need not be macerated for more than half an hours (face only).
Necklaces that match at the start of work often turn out to be too big, especially when a horse becomes thin due to work. Use a pillow to attach the neck. Usually 2in. longer than neck size, a 22" neck would require a 24" one.
The right setting of pubic hair is very important. When the hams do not rest in the collared seams over the entire length of the collars, they do not adjust. When the upper ham belt has the form of an upside-down" U", as shown in Fig. 12, and not just above the neck as shown in Fig. 9, the traction of the tug will expand the hams upwards and cause sores to the buttocks.
Hams that are too long or too tight cannot be adapted sufficiently to the collars. All you need is a bacon pack that fits in your neck. The urine size represents the length from the loops in which the upper shamrock is used to the lower loops, as a tight tendon, and roughly corresponds to the neck sizes: a 24-inch neck should therefore have a 23-24-inch shame that fits either a 23-inch or 24-inch one.
Fig. 11 shows that the upper tab is one too low so that the tab is removed from the stitch; see finger between tab and neck Fig. 11. When the ham belt is placed one too high at the top and released, as shown in Fig. 12, the ham falls too low, so that a space between the ham and neck remains at the bottom, as shown in Fig. 12.
Doing this is likely to cause a wound near shock point. A ham that is too long - for example a 24-inch ham on a 21-inch flange - causes a wound edged shoulder. When the draw point on the lower neck is tightened to the lower edge of the neck seams, it lies above the real draw point on the shoulders and makes a wound high up; when dropped, it creates a slit between the neck and the lower neck, as shown in Fig. 12, a wounded area near the shoulders.
A ham too brief, - say a 21-inch ham on a 24-inch neck, - makes a weak spot near the shoulders when the ham is pulled down near the neck line; but if it is high, - that is to say it fits near the top of the neck and not at the bottom of the neck, - it will make a weak spot at the height and near the outer rim of the shoulders.
Figure 10 - Same collars as in 8 and 9, with matching collars. Collars should be close fitting, but not too close or too loosely fitting to the throat. On the sides, there should be room to move your finger freely up to the top of the collars, but no more.
Cuffs that are too small at the top or on which the hams are too tightly compressed at the top press the throat and scrub it, which leads to wounds on the sides near the top. Too broad a collared area will cause the upper part of the throat to rub and cause a wound that starts there.
Too much neckband load is another common cause of throat pain, as when a mower or other equipment has a too lightweight rider to compensate for the load on the switch. There is a simple solution: attach a load - a brick or slab of cement - under the chair so that the combination of the load of the Teamster and the added item balances the load of the switch and takes all the load off the neckband when the rider is sitting on the chair, releasing the downwards load from the work animals' throat.
It' important to do this from the beginning to avoid getting a painful throat. It' very important (indeed, essential ) to get necklaces that match the horse or dog breeder, and then be sure that the hams are the right sizes for the necklace. When you don't have and can't get a necklace in the right sizes for every horse, use necklaces to make the necklace match; but make sure the necklaces are new, neat and the right sizes every time of the year so that the necklace fits the horse well.
Figure 11 - Upper loops 1 loops too low, loops gap away from the flange weld. A good rider keeps the horse's throat, shoulder and collars free from dirt on all contact areas. Make sure that the hair does not work under the face of the collars. At the ends of the box, stop to give the horse a breath and then lift the necklace away from the shoulder, sweep off dirt and perspiration and give the shoulder some cooling.
Watch often to see if the coat is ever brittle, as this is the first indication of scrubbing preceding an open wound. When this is the case, the neck, padding or ham must be adjusted correctly immediately. This will take a few lunch time to take off the harness and neck, but it pays off as it allows the shoulder to chill out.
Pic12 - Upper ham loop too loosely, ham falls too deep. By the end of the working days, cleaning the shoulder with a saline mixture of cool waters helps to keep it in a good state. It' good to wash the face of the necklace with a wet towel and then gently rub it off with another towel dipped in dish towel as soon as the necklace is removed.
Avoid rubbing the butt plate, keep it neat and slippery. When using necklaces other than leathers or upholstery, moisten them but do not use oils. When unbuckling, the necklace should be kept with both arms with the elbow under the horse's neck to avoid any stress on the necklace while unbuckling the collar: and the necklace should be strapped before hanging.
Covers should always be suspended with the underside facing up, as shown in Fig. 5, on a pin with round corners so that downward force is exerted on the flange and not on the toe, which is the separately bent section of compressed soles, as flat as a sheet of glas that lies on the top of the neckline to prevent abrasion.
When the horse is strapped in every single day, clean the face of the necklace and make sure it is slippery. While these things take less to tell you, they are the little things that help keep your shoulder in good shape when the setting of the neck and ham is right.
Figure 13 - Put on the cuff without buckling. A lot of growers who are particularly good at preventing sores or sores on their neck or shoulder do the adjustment themselves very well and do not allow the neck to be unfastened until they have to readjust it themselves. It may seem strange for unfamiliar men, but the horse gets used to it very quickly and the team' s owners or boss have the pleasure of know that the necklaces are used exactly as they have been set.
It works well with a horse, not a mule. Her long, delicate eyes make her strong objects and it is hard to convince her to agree to the idea "collar over head". At the point of the drawstring the neck is wideest, so it should be positioned as shown in Fig. 13 and turned back about 8 inch, then pushed back onto the shoulder as shown in Fig. 14.
Ill. 14 - Cuff in position. It is easy to give the harness a long service lifetime. Everything that is necessary is to keep it neat and well lubricated with a good trapezoidal film. The best results are achieved by taking the harness apart, loosening all harnesses, wash them with a very soft detergent and hot tapas, rinse each harness band in fresh tapas and hang them up to hang them out to dry. For best results, remove the harness from the harness.
The majority of growers take their harness to a workshop where it is lubricated in a cage of wires and immersed in a large hot harness fuel reservoir for 15 or 20 mins. It is then hung over the tub until the fuel outflows. It is quite efficient, but the man who disassembles and thoroughly cleans his harness before it is lubricated gets a much betterjob as perspiration and dryness prevents the penetration of oils into the underlying upholstery.
Made of a perforated hide, a few studs, an acorn and some line and harness warmth, it allows anyone who has ever seen a harness repair to make easy repair as soon as seams appear loosely. As the old saying goes - one sting in nine times - applies especially to the harness. A longer harness lifetime is also achieved when the harness is suspended in a harness room away from the vapours of nitrogen that rise from the stables; but this is rarely regarded as convenient due to a shortage of space, and the harness is generally suspended from a stake on the walls about 8 ft behind the workhorse on which it is used.
Washing, oiling and repairing dishes in cool conditions is not practical, unless a hot room is available. For a good day's work, you need to keep your leathers and oils hot. Currently, the dishwashers have neither free nor help with washing the dishes, so it is up to the owners to take it apart, clean it and scrap all the grime and perspiration from the damp belts with a sharp-edged chunk of hardwood (never use a blade to scratch leather) before taking it to the dishwashers to be immersed in a hot fat fuel tanks if they want a really goodjob.
A lot of owner choose to lubricate their own harness, but after doing it a few time, they have a higher esteem for the value of the services provided by their own harness store. Ill. 15 - Well adjusted belt. The back strap holds the tracks at right angles to the shoulder. The harness should be suitable for pets, but not strong enough to cause rubbing somewhere.
Farmyard animals and burros should be well nourished and powerful when the work is hard: but food alone is not enough. A good, pure corn, sweet-smelling and free of mould, musty, worms or proboscis beetles and lush grass, fragrant and free of mould, with easy entry to good pastureland, Sunday and rainfall.
Mouldy, stuffy food kills a horse or a burro. Eight quid of grass for a 1,400 quid workhorse or mayo. Wherever workaholics are bred at night and on Sunday on a good willow with various types of grass and pulses, they choose to consume less hey, usually by half, but even then they should be permitted to tidy up the mornings, midday and evenings.
Figure 16 - Wipe off flange cushion with a moist, dry towel. Most Midwest peasants, who are good riders, favour and use the grazing system to complement sufficient grains and meadows for their working cattle. Figure 17 - Well harnessed: The ropes hold the horse's head to the centre of their individual trees so that they move forwards.
You can find out how to take good look after your horses' and mules' legs in a brochure which is available on demand.