Horse Racing EncyclopediaEncyclopedia for Horse Racing
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Horseracing is a type of sports in which a horse fights for the quickest and richest time; a race is subdivided into those in which a horse joins a horse on its back and those in which the horse draws a small stroller (trotting). As a rule, horse back riding is thoroughbred, while trotting qualifies as standard breeds.
Full-blooded racing involves both shallow and jumper racing; while shallow racing takes place on terrain and lawn tracks, obstacle racing and hurdling race takes place on lawn tracks, and horse jumping over a series of obstacles erected on the track. The race in Europe, Japan, Australia and New Zealand takes place solely on turf pitches, while the race in North and South America takes place on both unpaved and turf pitches.
Horse racing's early past is patchy, with the greatest focus on England starting in the 16th century. Recordings indicate that carriage racing and equestrian racing were part of the old Olympic Games (700 BC to 394 AD) and served as popular entertainments in the Roman Empire.
Motor racing was widespread in the Middle East and North Africa; Europeans got to know these breeds during the Crusades (11th to 13th centuries) and returned many equines to Europe. Charlemagne II, who ruled from 1660 to 1685, was known for his interest in racing and was held responsible for founding the King Plates, creating the racing regulations and making Newmarket the centre of English racing.
By 1610 they had at least seven and kept their interest in racing, mostly matched racing between two pairs of horse over several four-mile piles. Motor racing was more common in the south, and Virginia became the horse centre in America.
"The whole South took part in the racing like a fly to molasses. Whilst most racing took place locally or regionally, the Union Course on Long Island, New York, sponsored the much-loved North-South series. His first north-south event took place in 1823; American Eclipse, the north horse, defeated Sir Henry in three four-mile runs.
Further north-south competitions took place in the years 1832, 1840 and 1845. After 1865 the racing scene was concentrated on New York. Kentucky Derby was founded in 1875, Preakness in 1873 and Belmont in 1867. In 1930 these three breeds were joined to the Triple Crown family.
Win all three heats in five consecutive week' time - a kilometer and a fourth (Derby), a kilometer and three fifteenths (Preakness) and a kilometer and a half (Belmont). Until 2004 only eleven stallions had won all three competitions in one year, none since 1978. Breeders' Cup was founded in 1984 and promoted as the World Horse Racing Championship.
Studs like Medley (1783), Shark (1788), Messenger (1788) and Diomed (1798) introduced the whole blood line to America. Descendants of the mating between females and females were registered (stud book) in order to guarantee the standards of the breed and the horse qualities. In 1791 the first General Stud Book was released in England; in 1896 the Jockey Club took over the horse register in North America.
Simultaneously, while some recognize the existence of hybrids and doubt the assertion of "pure" whole blood, the Jockey Club checks which US breed of horse is allowed to run: "It follows that well-bred stallions should be the winners of most competitions and the wealthiest, and the family tree is often used to assess the performance of them.
If a well drawn horse is the winner, his family tree is to blame, but if a less well drawn horse is a winner, it is often blamed on good fortune. In addition, when deciding to have a horse as a father or brood mare, the fact that a horse is successfully passed on the course is often ignored in favour of its cattery.
Sunday Silence, for example, won two of the three trials of Kentucky Derby and Preakness and the Breeders' Cup Classic in 1989 and defeated Easy Goer in all three events, but his breed was regarded as smaller than that of Easy Goer. In addition, the secretariat, which many believe is one of the largest in America and won the 1973 Crown Prize, had an unspoken fatherly record.
Of the fifteen drivers in the first Kentucky Derby, thirteen were African-Americans and African-American Jockeys won fifteen of the first twenty-eight Drivers. In addition, the victorious coaches of the first three Derbies-1875, 1876 and 1877 were Afro-Americans, as were the victorious coaches of 1884, 1885 and 1891, last year an Ethiopian trained the victorious horse.
However, in the 20th centenary, the picture was different: when Marion St. Julien was in the Kentucky Derby Curule in 2000, he was the first African-American jockey to have been in the derby for seventy-nine years. There have been two in 1932 and one each in 1934, 1944, 1951 and 1989, the last year in which an Afro-American coached a Derby horse (from 2004).
The first and only winner was Dudley Allen, who arrived in Kingman in 1891; the youngest was in 1994. A further problem in horse rearing is the resistance of the horse. A lot of people believe that the focus on quickness rather than endurance, combined with the increased use of medicines that "help" riders to achieve peak performance on the trail, has helped to make the population less robust.
Drugs are not a nationally prescribed norm; each state has its own set of laws, and many believe that the laws are too loose, which contributes to horse misuse and insecurity among the weather. Rather than breed the best (strongest) to the best (strongest), those who go to the kennel are often the ones kept on the track by the medical profession.
Horse run not so many runs anymore, they have longer breaks between runs and they run longer runs than their ancestors. Until 2004, most racing was between three quarters of a kilometer (six furlongs) and one kilometer and one sixth of a kilometer; racing one kilometer and one fourth was seen as problematic for most equestrian sports.
Another factor influencing resistance is the time at which the horse starts racing. From a historical point of view, the horse was at least five years old before the race; in England the Kings Plates race was for six-year-olds. But now the horse starts at two o'clock and often doesn't drive at six o'clock anymore. Racing stresses are not an advantage for youngsters, but the economic viability of the game makes two-year racing a must.
Or in other words, a horse must "earn a living." "Says the trials are for three-year-olds only. From a historical point of view, the reason for the race was the "improvement of the breed", but many now challenge this result. Indeed, some in the African Jockey Club recognize that their stud book controls are more about preserving race health than improving it (Case, p. 45).
Equestrian shop consists of the owner, both for breed and for racing; the trainer, who prepares the horse for racing; the jockey, who rides the horse; the courses, which organise and carry out the racing; and the fan, who puts on the racing. In addition, there are the state government, which taxes the cash on every game.
Often the motivation of each group is different, and these different motives are one of the main issues in racing. They usually select the race they want to compete in and often avoid any contest with competing stallions until they meet in prestige race like the Kentucky Derby or the Breeders' Cup.
The Kentucky Derby is also a horse that soon retires to preserve the Kentucky Derby's fame as a breeder's horse. They thrive by providing large wallet racing for proprietors who also draw viewers and gamblers. Competitors favour competitions with many stallions, i.e. more possibilities for competition.
Enthusiasts want to see competition racing between horse that they know or can relate to. Running on mud in North America is necessary because the racing is a year-round sports; the owner knows that his horse must work (race) to pay the cost of their maintenance. It is not possible to run everyday runs on turf; for example, runs in Europe and Australia change from circuit to circuit, and a particular circuit can only have forty to fifty racingdays per year.
Whilst the race tracks in North America also have meetings and the race can change from circuit to circuit in the course of the year, a meeting lasts sixty to ninety successive days. In addition, most racing is governed by state organisations that act autonomously and in their own interest; there is often little cross-border co-operation.
Attempting to create a framework or compromise between the interests of horse racing, the National Thoroughbred Racing Association (NTRA) was founded in 1997; however, NTRA has little authority to govern racing and has so far been only a single marketer group. From 2004, certain groups fought for dominance of racing by purchasing circuits in several states.
Churchill Downs Inc. owns Churchill Downs in Kentucky and bought Ellis Park in Kentucky, Calder in Florida, Hollywood Park in California, Arlington Park in California and Hoosier Park in Indiana. Another important actor was the New York Racing Association (NYRA), which controlled racing on three tracks:
Competitions are organised by racing clerks who work on racetracks to win the holders for entry to their horse. Whilst the general population is most interested in stake racing, such as the Kentucky Derby, the Arlington Million and the Breeders' Cup, most breeds are demanding and demanding. Demanding racing is the lowliest stage of racing and ranges from a low of about $5,000 to $80,000 or more; qualifying racing involves a horse "up for bid" and any authorised horse dealer can place a bet on a horse before the game.
At the end of the competition, the bidder for the horse becomes the new proprietor and has to settle the claim fee fixed for the competition. Authorization events are those with certain qualifying requirements, such as the number of victories of a horse or the amount of cash it has won in its life or within a certain timeframe; qualifying events do not qualify them.
As a rule, young horse will go through the admission requirements before taking part in competitions. There would be five complaint events, two subsidy events and two first events - competitions for a horse that had never won a game. The Maiden Special Weight racing is for better quality horse, while the Maiden Claims racing is for those who are not successful at the higher levels.
Others are disability racing, where racing clerks hire different weights of horse to get more horse to ride and make the event more competetive. In the Kentucky Derby and the Breeders' Cup, for example, all our teams have the same weights, while the Melbourne Cup, Australia's most favourite event, is a disabled one.
Often good horse are not used in disabled racing when the owners or trainers feel that the weight allocated to their horse makes it too hard for them to gain. Horseracing is known as the "sport of kings", an expression minted in England at the reign of Charles II and referring to those who have the means to own and run them.
Case and Hotaling The Right Blood and Hotaling They' re Off: Saratoga describe the noble aspects of racing. Simultaneously, the race is often described as similar to pit lane racing because sports bring together all categories of human beings. In the 1800' s the characteristic relation was, for example, the plantagenmeister, who possessed the horse, the Afro-American slave, who were the early yockeys and coaches, and the fan, who came from all years.
It had over 100 afroamerican jockeys in the later 1800' s, and Isaac Murphy was the best, won three Kentucky Derbies (1884, 1890, 1891) and 44 per cent of his race. However, there were no African-American Jockeys in the thirties. Less than ten African-American Jockeys competed in purebred racing in 1975.
In 2000 Marlon St. Julien ridden the Curule in the Kentucky Derby and was the first African-American yockey in the derby since 1921 (see sidebar). Diane Crump was the first female to compete in a pari-mutuel on February 7, 1969, and two weeks later Barbara Jo Rubin was the first female to won a pari-mutuel.
And Julie Krone was the first woman ever to triumph in a Triple Crown competition and won the Belmont in 1993. Gaming and horse racing have always been connected. In the early matches racing, the horse owner placed odds on their own horse and often had a third party take the odds.
Buchmacherei began around 1788 in England; the first US bookmaker was founded in 1866 in Philadelphia. Bookmakers were finally permitted to foot the bill for the right to take wagers on the circuits; all bookmakers were placed in a dedicated area, the "betting ring", and visitors could buy the cheapest rates.
A bookmaker would "give up" a bet by making winning odds on that horse with other bookmakers if the cash earned on a particular horse would cause a bookmaker to loose cash if that horse wins. Launched in France, the paramutuel system is the most popular type of bet in US racing.
When the chances for a horse fall, they rise for the other horse in the running. About 20 per cent of the invested amount does not go back to the betters, but is divided by the state, the course, the riders and others. Depending on the country, the take-out will vary in magnitude and is often a delicate topic for horse players.
For most of the 20th centrury's years, thoroughbred racing was the number one audience sports, with annual visitor numbers of 40,377,000 (1965) and 48,824,000 (1974), respectively, in comparison to 23,437,000 (1965) and 30,630,000 (1974) for the Upper Division basketball, which ranked second. The Daily Racing Form in 1979 said that horse racing was still the number one audience event, although the number of spectators fell by over a million this year (Rudy, p. 339).
Whereas it was customary in the 1940' s for the courses to attract between 20,000 and 50,000 visitors, the number of visitors had fallen in the early 2000' s, with the exception of specialist shows such as the Triple Crown Race and the Breeders' Cup. Whole blood racing records are 163,628 for the 1974 Kentucky Derby; 100,311 visited the 1999 Preakness.
In 1998 the Breeders' Cup events drew 80,452 supporters; the number of participants in the 2003 Breeders' Cup in Santa Anita was 51,648. Simultaneously, the mean day-to-day presence on the racetracks has decreased. American Racing Manual, 2001; American Racing Form, 2003. While horse racing was one of the five most popular forms of popular horse racing after the Second World War, interest had fallen, with the result that in 2000 only 1 to 2 per cent of spectators (McDaniel and Vander Velden) still cited horse racing as their favourite game.
The racing life is also characterized by bad demography; the picture of the characteristic course sponsor is an old, pensioned worker. Whilst there was a military campaign to get horse racing back into Mainstream America, many point to errors that horse racing made after the war. The race directors did not get involved in the ascent of TV and decided to defend the spectators on the circuit by not accepting TV.
The promotion of the trials and the Breeders' Cup will be emphasised, and TV odds will rise if there is a chance that a trial crown winning player will be determined. The first Sunshine Millions were held in January 2003 to encourage "team spirit" and not just interest in a particular horse, with racing between California-bred California breeds and Florida breeds.
It' s hard to become a favourite horse supporter when his racing careers are so brief and his supervisors are avoiding competing with competitors; rivalry between Swaps and Nashua (1955), Alydar and Affirmed (1978), and Sunday Silence and Easy Goer (1989) have spurred fans' imaginations and the NTRA wants to do more.
Mrs. Laska Durnell was the first woman to hire a horse in the Kentucky Derby; her horse Elwood won in 1904. Seven of the eight top derby places in 1942 were held by females, and in 2004 males were the order of the day. Chenery possessed the secretariat, perhaps the most famous horse in the second half of the 20th Century.
Shelley Riley came close to winning a derby with Casual Lies, who finished second in 1992. She was the first girl to qualify for a breeding cup in 1996 and won again in 1997. Laura de Seroux coached Azerbaijan to a breeding cup victory in 2002 and the horse was later elected Horse of the Year.
At the Kentucky Derby Diane Crump, Patricia Cooksey, Andrea Seefeldt and Julie Krone (twice) drove. Crown was the first female to drive in the Breeders' Cup. Whereas large masses of people on race tracks were once the standard and the yardstick for racing interest, they are no longer meaningful actions. Apart from racing such as the Kentucky Derby, Preakness, Belmont and Breeders' Cup, the race line-up is declining.
Of course, a bigger audience means more bets, but guests can now place bets on race courses all over the globe; race video will be broadcast simultaneously to other race courses and to off-track racing without the need for real-time racing. "Available at http://www.kentuckyderby.com/2002/. American Racing Manual. Racing Form Press daily, 2001 issue.
for The Jockey Club's Illustrated Historical of Thoroughbred Racing in America. America's aristocrats in thoroughbred racing. Daily race form, 5 November 2003. It'?s an American legend. "A story of the thoroughbred in America. "Horse racing. "Encyclopedia Britannica Deluxe Edition, CD version, 2003. Horse racing in Saratoga. Encyclopaedia of English Horse Racing. "Thoroughbred Times 19, no.
"Profil of those who show interest in thoroughbred horse racing. Race in America, 1960-1979. Race through the century: History of thoroughbred racing in America. "Ladies in the Derby.